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The Impact of Casino Gambling on Bankrupcy Rates:A County Level Analysis

de l'économiste Ernie Goss et du professeur de droit Edward Morse de l'Université de Creighton du Nebraska

 

Tableaux et figures

Figure 1:  Commercial casino AGR, 1990-2002

 

 

 


  

 

 

 

 


 

Figure 2:  Tribal casino AGR, 1997-2001 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source:  National Indian Gaming Commission, Tribal Gaming Revenues (7/2/2002).

 

Figure 3:  Tribal casinos by state

 

 

 


  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: Commercial casinos by state

 

 

 

 

 

 


  

 

 

 

 

 Table 1:  Comparison of commercial and tribal casinos

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial

Tribal

Number of casinos

432

248

Number of counties with casinos

60

192

Total AGR (in millions)

$26,518.3

$12,735.4

AGR per casino (in millions)

$61.4

$51.4

AGR yearly growth rate 1997-2001 (average)

10.3%

17.7%

Taxes or revenue sharing (in millions)

$4,038.4

$781.0

Effective tax or revenue sharing rate

15.2%

6.1%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2:  Bankruptcies by County, 1990-1999

 

Counties with:

 

Commercial casinos

Tribal casinos

No casino

Growth in individual bankruptcies 1990-99

91.8%

114.3%

100.0%

Median individual bankruptcies 1990

(per 1000 of population)

3.08

1.89

1.83

Median individual bankruptcies 1999

 (per 1000 of population)

5.83

4.29

3.82

Median firm bankruptcy 1990

(per 1000 of population) 

0.23

0.31

0.20

Median firm bankruptcy 1999

(per 1000 of population 

0.08

0.17

0.10

 

Table 3:  Comparisons of U.S. counties according to casino status

 

Counties with:

 

Commercial

Casinos

Tribal

Casinos

No

Casinos

Median Population—1990

43,284

33,828

21,432

Median Population Growth 1990-2000

5.7%

13.9%

8.2%

Median Population per square mile 1990

73.4

27.8

38.1

Median Poverty rate 1990

11.3%

15.2%

13.7%

Median Poverty growth rate 1999

10.3%

13.4%

12.3%

Change in median poverty rate 1990-99

-1.1%

-1.7%

-1.4%

Percent of population over 65-1990

13.0%

14.9%

14.6%

Median growth 65+ population 1990-2000

7.9%

11.5%

7.6%

Median family household income-1989

$26,721

$22,570

$22,637

Median family household income-1999

$38,472

$33,867

$33,505

Median Growth in household income 1989-99

46.8%

48.6%

48.3%

Median unemployment rate-1990

5.7%

6.9%

5.7%

Median unemployment rate-2002

5.4%

6.1%

5.4%

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4:  Matched counties

 

 

 

 

Casino county

Non-casino county

Population Growth, 1990-2000

11.7%

10.6%

Median growth in family income, 1989-99

47.5%

48.2%

Poverty rate-1989

14.4%

13.8%

Poverty Rate-1999

12.8%

12.2%

Unemployment rate-1990

6.5%

5.9%

Unemployment rate-2000

6.0%

5.5%

Increase in individual bankruptcy rate,1990-99

(median figure per thousand of population) 

2.37

2.08

Decrease in firm bankruptcy rate, 1990-99

(median figure per thousand of population)

 

 

 

Table 5:  Definition of variables used in Equations (1) and (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mountain

A binary variable equal to 1 if county is located in the Mountain States Region; Equal of zero otherwise.

Southeast

A binary variable equal to 1 if county is located in the Southeast region; Equal of zero otherwise.

Southwest

A binary variable equal to 1 if county is located in the Southwest region; Equal of zero otherwise.

West

A binary variable equal to 1 if county is located in the West region; Equal of zero otherwise.

West north central

A binary variable equal to 1 if county is located in the West North Central region; Equal of zero otherwise.

Change in population

Change in population between 1990 and 2000

Change in unemployment rates

Change in the county unemployment rate between 1990 and 2000

Change in poverty rates

Change in the county poverty rate between 1989 and 1999

Change in family income.

Change in county family income between 1989 and 1999

Added casino

A binary variable equal to one if the county’s first casino was constructed in the county between 1990 and 2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6:  Impact of factors on bankruptcy rates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Individual bankruptcy rates

 

Business bankruptcy rates

 

Coefficients

 

t Stat

 

Coefficient

t-stat

Intercept

9.8850*

 

2.4246

 

-0.2574*

-2.1171

Mountain

-3.5014

 

-0.9699

 

-0.0289

-0.2685

Southeast

-1.3294

 

-0.3389

 

0.0765

0.6541

Southwest

-2.5032

 

-0.9949

 

0.0400

0.5331

West

-6.1811*

 

-2.2470

 

0.2986*

3.6401

West north central

-0.0026

 

-0.0010

 

-0.0896

-1.1639

Change in population

0.0001*

 

3.6729

 

0.0402*

-4.2218

Change in unemployment rates

-0.0345

 

-0.0815

 

0.0047

0.3754

Change in poverty rates

97.7448*

 

16.3521

 

-2.3418*

-13.1370

Change in family income.

-0.0004

 

-1.3794

 

0.0001

1.2365

Added casino

3.2506*

 

1.9347

 

-0.1266*

-2.5270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Number of observations

482

 

 

 

482

 

Rsq

37.5%

 

 

 

30.3%

 

*indicates that coefficient is statistically significant at 5% level

 

 

Table 7:  Impact of factors on the change in bankruptcy rates, 1990-99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

 

Chapter 11

 

Chapter 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intercept

5.9036*

 

2.6375

 

-0.0968E*

 

-2.4877

 

3.8403*

2.1511

Mountain

-1.7851

 

-0.9007

 

0.0265

 

0.7680

 

-1.6954

-1.0725

Southeast

-1.4100

 

-0.6546

 

0.0011

 

0.0288

 

0.1557

0.0906

Southwest

-1.5751

 

-1.1403

 

0.0205

 

0.8537

 

-0.9079

-0.8241

West

-2.8408*

 

-1.8811

 

0.0450*

 

1.7149

 

-3.0822*

-2.5589

West north central

-0.1662

 

-0.1173

 

-0.0036

 

-0.1460

 

0.0882

0.0781

Change in population

0.0000*

 

3.6633

 

0.0000*

 

-4.2162

 

0.0000*

3.5958

Change in unemployment rates

-0.0240

 

-0.1034

 

0.0017

 

0.4140

 

-0.0084

-0.0456

Change in poverty rates

52.5214*

 

16.0044

 

-0.8215*

 

-14.4050

 

43.6680*

16.6836

Change in family income.

-0.0002

 

-1.3731

 

0.0000

 

1.4080

 

-0.0002

-1.3851

Added casino

1.7687*

 

1.9174

 

-0.0230

 

-1.4358

 

1.3732*

1.8664

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Number of observations

482

 

 

 

482

 

 

 

482

 

Rsq

36.5%

 

 

 

32.0%

 

 

 

38.4%

 

*indicates that coefficient is statistically significant at 5% level (one-tail test)

 

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